News - Category 'Immigration'

The Hispanic Myth

10 Nov : 10:53 Category: Immigration

We've been told it's wrong to criticize American Progressive/Liberal hating of America, their belief, their right and all that, which, though this latter fact is true, requires there is no proof to the contrary. You see, the whole point in the right is that they are American, our most recent examples of why this is important are the Christians abroad beheaded for their Christian views, or burned alive, and that's after an ordeal of being kidnapped, sometimes raped and tortured as well. Freedom of Religion, Press, and Expression aren't together in the First Amendment for them being unrelated, they are entirely related in every way.

So let us begin with the certainty America from its discovery has been a Christian Nation, noting that it was Feudal Spain who began settlement of America after a war for a Spanish province known as Granada that had been taken by the Moors, the highest of the hierarchy of Islam in what is called the Reconquista, in English the re-conquest, which is what brought about the Crusades, and the Conquistador, conqueror (this is the actual Spanish translation of the word), with sole purpose almost entirely to obtain booty and the use of force to get it. This is the way feudal kingdoms and empires ran. This is why Europe was in war after war that our history books tout as a nation at war, when it was a crown (the State) pursuing its own purposes and viewing the people as an expendable luxury of royal prerogative and whim.

A successful voyage by Columbus would steal a march on the Portuguese, and might conceivably bring riches to an empty treasury. Above all – at least as far as Isabella was concerned – the project could be of crucial importance in the crusade against Islam. A successful voyage would bring Spain into contact with the nations of the East, whose help was needed in the struggle with the Turk. It might also, with luck, bring back Columbus by way of Jerusalem, opening up a route for attacking the Ottoman Empire in the rear. Isabella was naturally attracted, too, by the possibility of laying the foundations of a great Christian mission in the East. In the climate of intense religious excitement which characterized the last months of the Granada campaign even the wildest projects suddenly seemed possible of accomplishment. The close coincidence [in an age of communications by courier, no Internet, no phones, etc.] between the fall of Granada and the authorization of Columbus's expedition would suggest that the latter was at once a thank-offering and an act of renewed dedication by Castile to the still unfinished task of war against the [muslim] infidel.” -- Imperial Spain 1469 – 1716 by J. H. Elliott, copyright 1963, pg 49.

Funny how our teachers failed to teach us this part of the story out of a commitment to Political Correctness and those who sue if public schools are seen as teaching a religion in violation of the First Amendment establishment clause. But this is how blindness, better known as ignorance, is created in a mass of people, transplanting the notion of students gaining knowledge with gaining an agenda for future use. Of course, there will be those who say “I knew that,” while their actions and beliefs are assurance that they then didn't act on their own mind but acted on what they were taught as more than a guide, more like a mandate, as though fictional Jean Luc Picard following the just as fictional Prime Directive. This is the Progressive/Liberal value of impression, the undermining of individual thought, of individual deliberation and consideration at its finest.

To be sure, Genoese Columbus set sail for their Catholic Majesties Ferdinand and Isabella for sake of God and Kingdom to assure domination over Islam and the muslim infidel.

And now here comes, for this article, one of the Progressive/Liberal hypocrisies that, well maybe you have to hear this first to refresh recent memory:

The persistent shaming of Americans over what happened to the Native American – Though not even bought by the Native American, but that'd be another article since the thrust of exploiting the Native American cause is to attack wealth and the wealthy,, and is in fact another Progressive/Liberal effort at carrying on the slave traditions of Columbus by slavery to political party, of creating a division amongst Americans that enables this to occur.

The years 1519-1540 represented the final, heroic phase of the conquista – the years in which Spain won its great American empire. This empire was built on the ruins of the two native empires of the Aztecs and Incas. The conquest of the Aztec empire of Mexico was undertaken from Cuba in 1519 by Hernan Cortes with a brilliance and a daring which was to fire the imagination both of contemporaries and of future generations; Pizaro's destruction of the empire of the Incas, in fact, proved almost a carbon copy – sadly blotted in its later stages – of triumph of Cortes a decade before.” -- Ibid, pg 51.

That's the “Aztec empire of Mexico...” meaning all these folks, especially with Spanish surnames, showing up at our border are the descendants of those who killed entire Native American empires below our southern border! For brevity I'll just explain that killing wasn't all, for the smaller Native American tribes found were used as slave labor and deported to Spain to be sold as slaves – Ferdinand and Isabella took steps to stop this, so save your righteous blame of Christianity, which had been attacked and provoked by Islam's Moors prior to all of this.

So here's the burning question: How is it that the Liberal agenda is so forgiving of Spain's descendants who destroyed two Native American empires and made every effort to enslave the rest until stopped by the Spanish Crown? America's Constitution included clauses to stop slavery, per James Madison in Federalist 42,, yet no one taught us this in school, and instead a perpetuation of “uncaring white slave owners” is promoted, while “they stole the land from the Native Americans” is a part of the so-called “education” that's proven to be pure Progressive/Liberal agenda anti-American rhetoric when one takes a look at the history.

If you're too blinded by your hatred, a hatred ginned up by a Progressive/Liberal education (see taken down prior to the 2012 endorsement of Barack Hussein Obama), then please understand that was the whole point of the education you actually received; that your choices of hatred for Individual Liberty or erroneous belief our Freedom is prescribed by the Constitution, your hatred for American Institutions, for Capitalism (the objective instrument of governing resources so they aren't all used up) and the idea that the Constitution was written to limit the government, then please take refuge in the following as a stable solid ground to raise your head high:

Alongside this geographical concept of Spain there also existed in certain limited circles an historical concept deriving from the old Roman Hispania; a vision of the time when Spain was not many provinces but two, Hispania Criterior and Ulterior, united beneath the rule of Rome.” – Ibid, pg 7.

So now, about that “taking us backwards” so-called “Progressive” touted line of reasoning, I submit to you, oh Progressive/Liberal, oh hypocrite, that your desire to centralize power and place it above the Individual is Rome all over again and that use of the term “Hispanic” is to restate this humanist religious objective, that led to Rome seeking refuge in Catholicism after its fall. Your reality is you respect the descendants of Spain who continue the reconquista in invading America as a genetic trait of right while claiming Americans should be ashamed of a heritage that it didn't carry on for long and was sparing as to enslavement, to eventually treat these people as sovereign nations – another denied right to the American under Progressive/Liberal government!

I'd say more but I believe history has explained the epitaph of Progressive/Liberal views as the hypocrisy they are, entire propaganda talking points of fiction intended to centralize and control, to enslave us all to absolutely non-existent political correctness by feigned care and sensitivity – a sociopath socialist psychodrama – and nothing more.

God Bless you and thank you for reading and sharing this,

Toddy Littman

printer friendly create pdf of this news item

Obama's “Shuck & Jive” Immigration Reform

11 Jun : 16:28 Category: Immigration

It's no secret that almost 80% of Latinos voted for Barack Obama.

However, what they might not know is that U.S. Senator, Barack Obama from Illinois, voted against the 2007 Immigration reform bill, and it is noteworthy that Senator Menendez, joined Senator Obama in making an Amendment to change the 2007 efforts at comprehensive immigration reform.

It's clear that the “guest worker program” is viewed as a form of amnesty, and I submit that I agree with this fact.

However, Barack Obama did not disagree with the 2007 Immigration Reform Act because of the guest worker program, as some have said. Instead, and to me this is worse, Barack Obama opposed the program because it would use a points system to value skill and that immigrant's value to the economy in the legal immigration system (the current pathway to citizenship) to determine who to issue a visa to. Thus, Obama's objection was about the visa program, that it would move away from the emotional appeal of immigration, to unify families, and instead would be used for the more realistic purpose of immigration: to have people who fulfill skills in jobs America needs done, and that, so far, Americans haven't been pursuing employment in, at least not at the wages an immigrant worker will work for.

One can easily see how the immigrant is a slave of sorts, especially the illegal one, and yet, it must be recognized that this was true of many an Americans' ancestry, many during the 1600's and 1700's coming to this country as an indentured servant, with a 7 year contract to do whatever they were told by another person in exchange for that person taking them to America. Of course the literally, and legally existing, slave, a remnant and holdover of the Feudal Institution of it by Europe, is another example, though not a voluntary immigration, it remains an immigration for the children of slaves.

Indians were never of this class, an amazing recognition of their assertion of certain sovereign rights, rights that they apparently abandon the moment they have land that they didn't go find themselves, nor fight other Indian Tribes to keep. A self-imposed destitute condition due to a reliance on treaties with the U.S. Government, and amazingly ignored as another time Government promises aren't kept, and illustrating a long history of Washington D.C. incompetence, long enough to explain it cannot be fixed by elections.

Now, returning to Barack Obama and the 2007 Immigration Reform that would have had a guest worker program 5 years earlier and provided a pathway to citizenship then, below I give you some excerpts from his speech. I have been looking for the whole thing, but ended up with this editorialized version being all I can find, so far anyway, here's a few passages from it, link to “the whole thing” as far as I can find, is at the end:

“I have serious concerns about this new experiment in social engineering, not only because of the lack of evidence that it will work, but because the bill says that the new points system cannot be changed for fourteen years.

“For that reason, I come to the floor today, joined by Senators Menendez and Feingold, to offer amendment 1202 to sunset the points system after five years. I am pleased that immigration experts, religious organizations, and immigrant advocacy organizations have all endorsed our amendment.”


“And they support the amendment because the new points system shifts us too far away from the value we place on family ties and moves us toward a class-based immigration system where some people are welcome only as guestworkers, but never as full participants in our democracy.”


“Our current immigration system delivers the lion’s share of green cards – about 63% -- to family members of Americans and legal permanent residents, while roughly 16% of visas are allocated to employment-based categories.

“The bill before us would reduce visas allocated to the family system in order to dramatically increase the proportion of visas distributed based on economic “points.” Once implemented, these new economic points visas would then account for about 40% of all visas, while family visas would account for less than half of all visas, with the remainder going for humanitarian purposes.”

Lastly, but most importantly....

“We are Americans. We do not have a caste or class based society, and we do not need a caste or class based immigration system. --

First, to the illegal immigrants, I want to apologize for now President Obama's focus on legal immigration (some 200,000 to 400,000 visas issued annually) during this 2007 effort at immigration reform, and his ignoring the 10+ millions of immigrants who are not legally in the United States of America and violated our Sovereignty, but have affected the cost of the nation and government so as to require being addressed with a special, one-time opportunity to be legally present in the United States of America. This, apparently, was not as important to Senator Barack Obama as those applying for visas, and his effort to change the point system by an amendment that was defeated became the reason Barack Obama voted against the bipartisan (12 Senators, 6 from both sides) effort at immigration reform, which would have made it politically neutral if done. Understand I do not agree with this approach, and though Obama helped this fail in 2007, he didn't agree with me to do it. I explain my position here,

One must note the heinous hypocrisy that while Americans are going to be subjected to Obamacare, a law that wasn't even read by half the people who voted for it while the President will say “we are a nation of laws” in regard to what the government does regarding Citizens of the United States, that then this same government, including President Obama, are willing to set aside the law that government imposes on those who come to our country without our permission, illegally crossing our borders.

What must be said: ANY amnesty/path to citizenship causes a slavery effect, intended or not, to the party that made it happen. Thus Obama's denial of immigration reform in 2007 was for party, his speech was about the visas issued and Obama did not (in what I can find of his speech) speak to the 10+ million illegal immigrants that the People of this nation are affording out of America's humanity. Again, I am not for Amnesty [slavery] of any kind. The point of this article is to explain Obama has been for it all along, but, for all you Illegal Immigrants Obama's caveat to Immigration Reform is: so long as it is his party alone that does it, that gets all the credit for it. There is an essential need in Liberalism that is based in socialism (not the original Liberation from government) to keep a crop of “minorities” consistently supporting the Democratic Plantation, irrespective of it only acting for the ideological agenda of socialism, without any concern for these “serfs,” these “slaves” -- their perfect caste system, the same one Karl Marx envisioned of “worker” and “Communist.”

You see, Barack Obama explains “We do not have a caste or class based society” to attack any effort to reach immigration reform that wouldn't have been bipartisan because Obama wants the Latinos voting for Democrats (and I am not a republican, but an Independent Conservative, yeah a Tea Party Conservative).

When you return to the debates put forth in the 1st term of Obama's Presidency you find efforts at universal healthcare taking precedence over Immigration Reform, particularly when the President had super majorities in both houses. This also stands true for the failure of the President to cause policies out of Washington that reduce uncertainty and aid businesses in having rational purposes to invest, to pursue their self-interest and create many many many more jobs.

I say “rational purpose” because Obama's articulations of “the 1%” and “the rich” or “those making over $250,000 a year” is the very revealing articulations of Obama asserting a personal, self-made, not “with a single hearing or public examination” (keep reading) “points based system” of judgement of those people that Obama has caste in a negative light for their willingness to be wealty. Whatever the criteria, by percentage division, using a term of class separation, or the numeric tally of the income someone makes being thrown in others faces, they all are an effort to stimulate anger from jealousy. It appears that President Barack Obama reserves the right to have his arbitrary, capricious, arrogant, and personally chosen points based system as the sole criteria for who should pay more or less taxes, or who should have their deductions reduced in half to pay for Obamacare. Yet, in perfect hypocrite fashion, Obama is stating above, in 2007, that these things don't exist and how they shouldn't for legal immigration, while ignoring those who are here illegally entirely.

Therefore, and thank you for reading to this point in this article, to tie this all together neatly I must close with this quote from the same speech, one that I find should be haunting Barack Hussein Obama every day of his life from now on:

“Religious organizations and immigrant advocacy groups also have endorsed my amendment because the decisions about what characteristics are deserving of points -- and how points are allocated for those characteristics -- were made without a single hearing or public examination.” -- Emphasis mine, Ibid.

Excuse me,...Mr. President, what about the lack of public hearings of umpteen provisions of the 2000+ page Obamacare? What about the lack of any “hearing or public examination” of the deserving of Nebraska of exemption, or Louisiana's payoff, or the voluminous bureaucratic waivers given to Big Labor and Big Business? None of these, was heard in public forums, the criteria of any of it remains undisclosed, seeming to be of “top secret” clearance, to which none will “confirm or deny” except that the payoff for a vote happened. Yet, I shouldn't be surprised now should I since few, if any, read Obamacare from beginning, voting for their political agenda,, irrespective of the fact they are our representatives carrying on an unconscionable act that will be enforced on Americans,

Please understand Mr. President that if you had put this all on C-span as you promised, and if you had told your party to read the bill as the American People demanded, then you would be consistent with your gripe about the 2007 Immigration points system, at least as stated. But no, you failed Mr. President, and this whining in 2007, almost prophetic when viewed with your whining that's gone on the last 4 years and continues over every issue that's important to socialist agendas, has led me to understand the new Obama “Campaign d'Socialist America,” that your tactic is to be....Drumroll please....: Emo-In-Chief.

The kids know the knee-jerker who is making more out of things than they need to, and simply out of a need to feel powerful and control something, you Mr. President have proven by this consistency of your personal emotional hypocrisy being regularly on display for the world to see to be the absolute best emo, so long as it meets your political ideas, Constitution, Truth, Honor, be damned, oh great emo master. Now realize, it's another first, no other President has been Emo-In-Chief, you should be proud.

Thank you for reading,

Toddy Littman

P.S. Longer than I wanted this to be but I must add, the only thing “cool” about Barack Obama is his lack of interest in illegal immigrants, except as a political resource to embarrass his opposition. Those who come to America from Cuba, Venezuela, and other socialist countries may be well familiar with this Obama tactic. Might be time to stay in your own country and take a stand there, just ask and I am sure America and Americans will be glad to help you have your nation in the freedom your people demand and deserve.

printer friendly create pdf of this news item

The Charm of Slavery: Amnesty

31 Jan : 03:39 Category: Immigration

When the peasant worked his land for a Noble who would take the crop according to a charter issued by the Crown of his nation, to then hand back a small portion of it so the farmer peasant could survive to repeat this again, you see the true meaning of this generosity: to perpetuate the station of each in the scheme of things. And in further diminution of the peasant, the Noble makes this effort with full knowledge it will be received as a generosity, spread as a story amongst other farmers, which both assures the following generations of this peasant to remain thankful for those over them as long as possible, and that other Nobles will react the same, not in equilibrium or to keep a revolution from occurring, but instead to assure that the historical record shows their benevolence as a class, as though this type of generosity is the regular occurrence, which is an absolute lie.

This is the picture surrounding subject servitude, the slavery of being a subject beholden to those who show you any value of your station in life, who provide the means to feed your family, irrespective of them providing nothing more.

In time, of course, this subject servitude form of slavery was replaced by African slavery, as Muslims sold Africans into slavery for the most part, and which continues to this day, (see the end of “Who Do You Think You Are” – Emmitt Smith episode, where he discovers this truth after going to Africa in following his family tree).

And now, today, we're again exploiting a group of people due to their legal designation, though this time it's as a lawbreaker, an illegal immigrant. The foundation of this rests in the fact they broke the law to come here to work, even if it means they are paid less than an American Citizen. That is an obvious agreement to be in bondage, in slavery, to be in the same scheme of things as the peasantry of any European Fief or Feud.

Our hand is out bearing the gift of Amnesty, while also saying “we'll now be able to tax you,” and “you're job in menial labor to feed your family is secure.”

In our history there's been a need for a particular skill set in the immigrants coming from all over the world as a part of what has made America great, that these came with other immigrants, and that this portion was enough to afford the entire group's addition to our nation's population and has been a wonderful thing.

But in this idea, Amnesty, we embark on a dark path, one that destroys the very idea of citizenship in America that is a grant of membership in the Sovereign Authority of the people over their government. Everywhere else in the world the people remain subjects under their government, look at Egypt, even Iraq, their governments writing their constitution, unlike the Founding of this nation, and the republican ratification process in its first institution. The steps to freedom are important, and they cannot be steps at all if the government is writing its own charter, the bias extraordinary and suffices to demonstrate why only Americans are not subject-citizens but constituent-Citizens – we did the constituting of the government, not the government constituting us as subjects, as it is everywhere else.

It is a sad day indeed to see our National Government, in the interest of what appears to be politics alone, take up legalizing the holders of millions of jobs that Americans could have. Of course there are many who will argue “but these are menial jobs with low wages that Americans just won't do,” to which I say “See the first paragraph above.” Slavery can take many names and many forms, and is wrong in all of them, at least in America where the Citizen is the Master and the government the servant, (see with citation to the original works by the Honorable former Supreme Court Justice James Wilson who signed both the unanimous Declaration of Independence and the Constitution for the United States of America).

I submit for candid consideration that we review the idea of Amnesty with the backdrop of the prohibition of slavery and involuntary servitude in the 13th Amendment, and remembering the Constitution is what constituted the government, that this thereby establishes that it is government who is, first and foremost, prohibited from causing slavery or involuntary servitude. A government granting Amnesty is a government granting food and shelter, no less than a Noble or a Crowned Head of Europe, nor a pre-Civil War slave owner, a government creating an underclass beholden to them – a slave. I wonder if this is what then Senator Obama meant when he said, “fundamentally transform America?” This is consistent with Obama's view that the Constitution is “what the government can do for you,” (see to hear the original full interview).

Thank you for reading,

Toddy Littman

P.S. Slavery is an abomination of our race, noted in the notion of it being “mankind,” and when we are ready to do some “benevolent” act that only results in a diminution of our nation's principles from inception, then we have given up on Freedom and denounced all kindness except as a matter of procedures and policies by politicians, better known as patronage/personal government. The idea of “amnesty” is never a solution when in government's hands, but a tool that tells the people government isn't governing at all but would rather focus on politics and parties, that government's primary criteria to “solve problems” is to provide opportunities for their party and policy changes in favor of government power and expansion. When we get this principle through our heads of how government “intervention” works we'll begin to get an inkling of why Our Founders established the United States of America by requiring ratification by the people of the document, Our Written Constitution, constituting a government of enumerated, and thereby limited, powers.

printer friendly create pdf of this news item

Citizenship Needs To Be “Door Number 1”

06 Dec : 21:49 Category: Immigration

The Problem

Let’s Make a Deal” is the immigration game we play today, being caught up in the politics of the moment, and this is where Newt Gingrich, and the rest of the candidates, need to provide a certain clarity, something with absolutely zero ambiguity.

It is no secret, to the illegal hordes swarming the border, that reality has taken the form of Uncle “Monty Hall” Sam saying, “Door number 1 has a fence. Door number 2 has electronic surveillance. Door number 3 has a bureaucracy and an average 7 year waiting period. All paths will get you at least residency, and, likely, eventual citizenship if enough of you pick the same door and are willing to wait long enough.” Ignored is the fact that this is merely America catering to a typical Progressive tactic of overwhelming the system, only this time it is by those who aren't even American Citizens. Without any reservation, I will state that I believe it is high time We, The People, the American Citizen who financially, and in patience, have afforded politicians the luxury of seeking ways to gain this new group as a constituency, put our foot down!

Newt has mentioned his plan is “not citizenship,” “not amnesty,” on numerous occasions, his explanation of his stance attempts to explain his view, though there remains am ambiguity, as at no time is an absolutely unequivocal certainty articulated, relying on one deriving the conclusion citizenship is not included in Newt's position due to absence or subtle mention regarding a particular aspect of his plan,

Point 2 sounds good at a glance, but then narrows its point:

2. Under no circumstance can a path to citizenship be created which would allow those who have broken the law to receive precedence over those who patiently waited to become residents and citizens via the legal process. Those who adhered to our immigration law cannot be usurped by those who violated it.” -- Emphasis mine, Ibid.

In reality, residency of some 11 million (and likely more like 30 million people), will eventually become a Left talking point due to the desire to have this number of people as a voting block, suggesting that residency is tantamount to a form of slavery. This is the way of the Left and what has become their most certain legislative means of destroying the republic, the Civil Rights Act of 1964. This is the fallout of the Civil Rights Movement becoming a mouthpiece of political power and a tool of Progressive assertion of socialism, long after the rightful claims for “equal rights” in Freedom, and their meaningful exercise, even in the 1920s by those who didn't allow race (nor gender, for that matter) to be an obstacle to their asserting freedom,

In fact, this Civil Rights government expansion tactic was recently being used by our illustrious Progressive-Terrorist-In-Chief in the American Jobs Act, as a means to make being unemployed an activity protected by the Civil Rights Act of 1964,

Proposed Solution

Thus, I have no room for vague and ambiguous, by absence and omission of terms, translation methods as the means to derive conclusions regarding immigration, and this is because it is a 200+ year old Constitutional Mandate upon Congress, a mandatory non-discretionary duty:

To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization,...” -- Article I, Section 8, Clause 3,

Instead, I submit, it is clearly beyond the point in time that there is “an uniform Rule of Naturalization” and I propose the following law:

We The People of the United States of America do hereby reject the continuing subjection of ourselves, our children, and those who wish to come to America to live in Freedom, and no longer will afford the parallel continued encroachment on Our Nation's, Our State's, and Our own personal Sovereignty as American Citizens, and hereby demand that Congress enact simple legislation stating the following as an uniform Rule of Naturalization, which we believe will cause Citizenship to be the Holy Grail of coming to America legally:

That Citizenship, and the certain benefits thereof, are denied to any and all who come to the United States illegally. Congress retains exclusive Constitutional Authority over this Act.”

I take this stand because each Unalienable Right I have is also a Property I Own; that I and every single American have these rights as a matter of Our Founders, who fought and took on a completely different system of government where the People are over a servant magistracy. This is a foreign idea to many who come here, and a particular incident to American Citizenship that makes the people Supreme, the absolute “buck stops here” Sovereign of the United States of America, a principle well recognized by Supreme Court Justice and Founder James Wilson, who signed both the Declaration of Independence and Constitution For The United States of America, a principle that has never been disputed by any other founder, Federalist or Otherwise:

Permit me to mention one great principle, the vital principle I may well call it, which diffuses animation and vigor through all the others. The principle I mean is this, that the supreme or sovereign power of the society resides in the citizens at large; and that, therefore, they always retain the right of abolishing, altering, or amending their constitution, at whatever time, and in whatever manner, they shall deem expedient.” James Wilson, Founding Father, Lectures on Law: Volume 1 Chapter 1 page 17.” -- cited per

This principle, that an American is not in subject servitude to their government, is the epitome of American Exceptionalism at its root.

I further submit that a law banning Citizenship to those who came here illegally will draw a bright line as to who is coming here for the right reasons, and who isn't, as it will cause a certain focus to be known to any who come here illegally, that they deny themselves Citizenship by coming to America illegally. Thus, those who come here using the legal process will more likely be coming here for the right reasons, and less put off by the process of becoming an American. Please note that I'd like to streamline this process, to a minimum of 3 years, but leaving room for some to take far longer.

I'll further submit that this type of legislation allows for Congress to then amend the act with waivers, amendments that will have been well considered, debated, and thought out because those wanting them will have to earn it through making their case to Congress and the American People as part of the process of getting such waivers enacted, or we'll be exercising our term limit prerogative, and any other remedies to enforce the Constitution on government, en masse. This is the beauty of our Constitution, and what makes American Citizenship so valuable, that it is an instrument to be enforced upon government by We The People, and it seems we're finally comprehending this aspect of Our Founders' work.

Progressives love to say “The Constitution is outdated and things have changed,” I do not agree with this for often it's merely that a part of the Constitution wasn't actually followed as the mandate or prohibition on Government's actions that Our Founders' intended, leaving the means of measure and conclusion, accordingly, a Progressive inaccuracy. The Constitution, as a legal instrument, a regime of limitation on government put in place by We The People, hasn't changed one jot or tittle, yet those seeing the Constitution as a living document that grants rights to the people, as though the Soviet Constitution,, will do so in the interest of undermining the very foundation of Freedom, to change the way we comprehend it, for their own purpose of destroying the republic and establishing a democracy on the road to Communism.

Immigration is one of the Constitutional mandates ignored, at least according to the actual evidence at the border today and estimated populations of illegal immigrants in the country from all over the World. Thus, the policy I suggest establishes a uniformity of punishment, a blanket policy applicable upon all who fail to come to America Illegally, and thereby would establish they do not have a presumption of good intention, irrespective of many a personal, and generally subjective, anecdote to the contrary. Please understand this isn't a game or a debate, as some political football, nor ideological point of opportunity for any side, and is instead a matter of national security. This is the reason we must remove, cease from applying, the presumption of good intention, and the follow-up assumption of demonstrating our benevolence to those here illegally, and instead apply this particularly to those who apply for citizenship after we've established a uniform policy regarding illegal entry into the United States of America, one that results in the punishment of being barred from ever becoming an American Citizen. If everyone loved us, if the view from wearing rose-colored glasses were the view when you take them off, and this were Utopia, none of this would be necessary. Instead, because America has unrelenting enemies outside the United States who see our border as an opportunity to do harm, imposing a necessary duty to protect ourselves is imperative.

When Our Founders initially considered Immigration, explosives were nowhere near capable of Hiroshima and Nagasaki catastrophic damage and heinous death that lasted for decades after the fact. Today this threat is at our doorstep, via Hugo Chavez, Hezbollah, and Iran,

Either we are an exceptional nation who recognizes the unique quality of American Citizenship, or, we're ready to diminish the value of American Citizenship to just another form of subject servitude at the hands of an oppressive government. It's up to us, the Sovereign, to decide, at least for now, and let us hope we decide before the decision is made for us by Washington, D.C.

Thank you for reading,

Toddy Littman

printer friendly create pdf of this news item

A State Before The Constitution

22 May : 02:41 Category: Immigration
Arizona's immigration law is a statement of unprecedented accuracy that the Federal Government has no duty, authority, or capacity to protect our borders with neighboring nations. This is how relations were between the states themselves before the Constitution.

Per the Constitution

Article I, Section 8, Clause 3 establishes the federal government has exclusive power over naturalization, so much so that naturalization must be uniform, meaning it cannot be arbitrary and capricious, or otherwise unpredictable:

To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization...

Let's see how the National Government of the United States defines “Naturalization,” 8 U.S.C., Section 1101, paragraph 23:

“The term ‘naturalization’ means the conferring of nationality of a state upon a person after birth, by any means whatsoever.”--

First, notice there is no mention of the border of the United States. This indicates that there is no inherent relationship of the border to naturalization.

Second, “by any means whatsoever” is very broad, which means that for someone not to be a legal alien would require a willful and intentional avoidance of naturalization and a blatant disregard for America and our laws.

Understand that the national government has in fact created “an uniform Rule of Naturalization,” a consistent and predictable process for anyone who wants to live in America to achieve the “conferring of nationality of” the United States of America.

Thus Arizona, and the border, is being misused as a political issue, a victim of political application of the “substantial effects test.” National Government action to control the border is assumed, by the Washington Politicians, to be perceived negatively by the vast majority of the Hispanic Community. Anything that could “substantially effect,” in a negative way, the Politician’s ability to appeal to the Hispanic Community must, to the Politician, be avoided at all cost. This wreaks of national weakness when viewed in light of the Hispanic Community being the fastest growing community in the United States. Washington and politicians all over America are treating the Hispanic vote as a political “derivative,” a futures contract that the biggest “political speculators,” Washington Politicians, believe is best invested in by taking no action. Political insurance that nothing could in any way be applied by the Hispanic Community as a negative to the Politician and their expected lifestyle.

A Politician’s persistent emphasis, irrespective of party, is to get re-elected and maintain their seat of abuse of our power, to put politics before their primary duty to protect our unalienable Right to Life through securing our border and protecting us from those abroad who hate America.

Please know that I have nothing against people who want to serve this nation for as long as they wish, so long as it is in honor of We The People, to effectuate Our Will in securing our Unalienable Rights to Life, Liberty, and Pursuit of Happiness. Anything less is deserving of our Sovereign imposed term limit of voting against that politician as reprimand for the disservice they have done to our nation while abusing the powers of the Constitution. This abuse, and an exploitation of all American aliens, is what is occurring right now by the failure of the United States Government to enforce existing immigration law, as that enforcement upon illegal aliens is the “to establish” part of “an uniform Rule of Naturalization,” the enforcement of our laws is how establishment of uniformity is accomplished.

Lack of Uniformity Invokes State’s Rights

The physical border is a labor made physical property (achieved generally by war). Physical borders are affirmed by mathematical measurements that then are used in crafting law made property, by legislation designating a border that is also in agreement with the neighboring nation. Treaties tend to be these agreements.

And The 10th Amendment states:

“The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.

As we saw above “an uniform Rule of Naturalization” has nothing to do with borders as citizenship has only the physical property of a birth location within the borders. Naturalization is thereby not required.

There is also no provision in the Constitution granting specific power to the Federal Government to control the border, nor any provision prohibiting the states from doing so. This indicates that if a State and the citizens thereof believe a law, such as the Arizona immigration law, will help them to secure their border, that, as a State, they have every right to pass such legislation.

When one reviews the intent of the Arizona Law one finds a State providing the manpower and capability to enforce the Federal Immigration Law in their State at the State’s own expense. Additionally, if a greater number of states pass similar legislation, the National Government is being assisted in achievement of the “uniform Rule” requirement of Article I, Section 8, Clause 3. And please note too, that “Federal Government” means government by both the individual States and the National government together, as that is our “federal system of government.”

Behold the Legislative Intent of the Arizona Law

“The legislature finds that there is a compelling interest in the cooperative enforcement of federal immigration laws throughout all of Arizona. The legislature declares that the intent of this act is to make attrition through enforcement the public policy of all state and local government agencies in Arizona. The provisions of this act are intended to work together to discourage and deter the unlawful entry and presence of aliens and economic activity by persons unlawfully present in the United States.”

And further...





The Arizona Law, which is based on the National Government Law, is the ultimate assistance the National Government and its 13 trillion dollar debt need.

By its language, the Arizona Immigration Law is consistent with the Federal Constitution‘s requirement of “an uniform Rule of Naturalization.” Almost word for word this law is a copy of the immigration law passed by Congress with one exception: lawful contact. The National Immigration Law is where local police are authorized to ask for papers without already having lawful contact with the person, meaning it is the National Immigration Law and not the Arizona Law that does all the terrible things Nancy Pelosi says the Arizona Law does. It would seem Janet Napolitano, Eric Holder, and their boss President Obama, fell for their own propaganda that the law is an exact word for word duplicate of the National Immigration Law.

It also must be said that the Arizona Immigration Law does not demonstrate any attempt by the State of Arizona to enforce immigration law in protest, usurpation, or in any other way without the National Government, and that the Arizona Law is only in support of the National Government’s Constitutional authority under Article I, Section 8, Clause 3. The Arizona Law is to effectuate a public policy that recognizes and addresses a desperate need to enforce Federal Immigration law, particularly where, by politicization, the National Government has asserted the 5th Amendment to do and continue doing nothing. This is an act of silence that effectuates a measurable result of 465,000 illegal aliens in Arizona. This testimony by omission (action by failure to act) is the significant basis for passing laws to help, to cooperate with the National Government.

And it further must be said that, when the National Government that has a power delegated to them and fails to enforce its own laws in support of that power, the National Government then relinquishes such power back to where the power originates, the States or the People.

More on the Uniform Rule of Naturalization

With Naturalization, and all other enumerated Constitutional Powers, there is a mandatory non-discretionary duty upon the United States Government to assure use of theses powers in a manner consistent with their purpose in being delegated. Naturalization requires that all aliens in this nation have had “the conferring of nationality of” the United States upon them “after birth, by any means whatsoever” or the National Government will have failed “to establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization.” This failure is what has occurred in Arizona for more than 15 years, to which Arizona is responding as an individual State honoring their duty, as a State of the Union, to assist the National Government.

The National Government’s need for help is emphasized by our government having an entire system designed specifically to identify those who are here legally and those who are not. We would not have this system and the documentation thereof, a green card, with legal requirement the documentation is to be carried on the person of a legalized alien unless the purpose of such documentation is to be available for presentation on demand.

The lack of action by the National Government, due to the politicization of the immigration issue, has brought the federal government to impotence in regard to naturalization, as a limbo has been created by inaction that only serves to protect those not legally in the United States.

Thus, pursuant to the United Stated Code definition above, the National Government is acting in violation of Article I, Section 8, Clause 3 by not enforcing the National Immigration Law. The National Government is failing to assure all aliens in this nation are in possession of a green card, a direct violation of the “uniform Rule” requirement of the clause by the National Government. “Uniform Rule” makes it incumbent on the Federal Government to enforce the law without question, particularly in light of the idea “we are a nation of laws and not men.” and “there is no one above the law.” The Constitution is the often-stated (or oft-quoted) source of these notions, and the Progressives who remind us of this need to remember this same position in the application of Naturalization to those here illegally, regardless of their number. It is an outrage that these Washington Elite Progressive Politicians always remember to mention these ideas when scolding financial institutions, the insurance companies once they opposed healthcare, and, whenever there is need to bring back into lockstep line, the political forces that helped the President gain election, for then these very same Politicians forget this principle for sake of the same manipulation of political forces. There is no integrity to their cause, just myriad negotiations in patronage, so long as political office, and the Politician’s seat of abuse of power, is retained.

Now to those who say, in relation to Mexican immigrants, “but they just want to work, to do the jobs Americans don’t want” or “look at the violence there, these people can’t make an honest living in that environment, and that’s no place to raise their children,” please explain why these people don’t immediately ask for sanctuary? You’d think the plethora of immigration lawyers, whose job is entirely created by this uniform Rule of Naturalization, would make sure that those here illegally are well versed in applying for sanctuary!

However, for once it may be an issue that has nothing to do with the lawyers, and instead it is that these people crossing into America from Mexico, aren’t interested in asking for the opportunity to be a part of the Sovereignty of this nation, and instead, wish to assume this land belongs to them, maybe even as a debt owed by us, the jobs they take here being the tip of the iceberg and some sort of recompense in their eyes?


Hence the whole idea of this uniform Rule of Naturalization: provide, as we do for native born American Citizens, equal opportunity in regard to becoming an American, which the national law does provide when you look at the definition of “naturalization” (above) and the lack of defining a specific means by which citizenship is to be conferred. As Americans, let us be clear in our American Pride and recognize that the issuance of green cards, and/or other instruments, which an alien is to present when inquired of, that these instruments are intended to be displayed with pride because that alien is being asked to demonstrate Citizenship, that they are an American. What could be a greater honor, as a legal alien, than to show the world that this great honor of being an American has been conferred on their person by the United States of America? These instruments and any request for their presentation violate nothing in the Constitution, particularly where the law provides for their issuance to the person upon conference of nationality of the United States by “any means whatsoever.”

Let’s make sure to note that the primary purpose of naturalization is to cause the person applying achievement of the full authority to enforce the prohibitions on the National Government that are made by the Federal Constitution. This current system of Naturalization beholds the legal alien as one “endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness.” Legal aliens have the legal authority to be counted amongst the multitude who are the Sovereign of this nation, and protected by the limitations of intrusion in their lives placed on the National Government, people who can subject the government to be held accountable to the Constitution and express re-statement of existing rights the first Ten Amendments represent. The legal alien is one of We The People who instituted a National Government to secure Our unalienable Rights. This is what the green card represents and apparently the Progressives want this to be given to those who do not respect our laws by applying to achieve this themselves--Naturalization by Nannystate.

To be an American, is not a minor power, and it is an absolute confusion of the national government to take the position they are handing out citizenship and not the inclusion of legal aliens as part of those who created the National Government, with all the unalienable Rights that come with being an American.

This lack of the National Government to take direction from the Constitution is the only reason this issue is pressurized, controversial, and political, as, Constitutionally, the matter of Naturalization is settled.

Thank you for reading,

Toddy Littman

printer friendly create pdf of this news item

The Politburo Speaks

11 May : 16:58 Category: Immigration
From (

"pol·it·bu·ro (p?l'?t-by?r'?, p?-l?t'-)

n., pl., -ros. The chief political and executive committee of a Communist party."

A little Drudge report tweet about Mr. Eric Holder today, the Attorney General of patronage, pardons, and office abuse by incompetence extraordinaire, here's the link to the article:

And here is the best part to me:

"The recently enacted Arizona law initially allowed police to ask anyone for proof of legal U.S. residency, based solely on a police officer's suspicion that the person might be in the country illegally. Arizona lawmakers soon amended the law so that officers could check a person's status only if the person had been stopped or arrested for another reason."

As usual the mainstream media must paint the picture of the initial protests as valid, as though the law actually allowed police to stop someone just for the sake of asking if they are legal or not, which the law did not. From the beginning the law only allowed people who were stopped, known as "legal contact" to be subject to an officer asking them if they are a legal resident.

And of course the obvious to this is true: "Driver's License and Registration" are well known expectations of every officer when you are pulled over at a traffic stop. "Do you have any identification please?" is another well-known question of them at your front door, usually after they flashed their badge and announced who they are. Thus, at what point is an illegal alien being oppressed if the American people, who are expected to produce the same indicia of legal existence, are not so oppressed? This is particularly true in those cases where you are a legal immigrant and the officer asks for any of this paperwork, you will naturally include your green card as you are required to have that on your person at all time.

But of course Mr. Holder, well, even after the law is amended, and the entire Progressive establishment, without ever addressing the oppressive nature of needing a driver's license or registration, (an oppression that must be true to be against requiring a person to produce a green card as well, even though federal law already requires the green card) decides to say this:

"Holder told ABC's 'This Week' program that one concern about the Arizona law is that 'you'll end up in a situation where people are racially profiled, and that could lead to a wedge drawn between certain communities and law enforcement, which leads to the problem of people in those communities not willing to interact with people in law enforcement, not willing to share information, not willing to be witnesses where law enforcement needs them.'"

Apparently Mr. Holder has never been to New York, New Jersey, and the most heinous of the places no one volunteers information, due to patronage concerns, is Chicago! In other words, the idea people don't volunteer information is perfectly acceptable where there is a political use for the information, but unacceptable if it results from a desperate desire to protect the border of the United States of America by protecting the border of the State of Arizona, where the United States Government has failed for decades, abdicating and giving at best lip service to the issue; where also the United States government is choosing the least financially costly means, more agents and enforcement of the current federal law (mirrored in the Arizona law) on employers who hire illegal aliens. They'd rather have the political cost of the endless reign of whatever party grants amnesty to 12+ million illegal aliens in the United States.

Of course this assumes the argument isn't specious in the first place, as 70% of the people of Arizona want this law, meaning 70% of the population will encourage and cooperate with law enforcement due to knowing their local police can finally do something about illegal immigration. That's 70% more people with respect for their State's government, a no-no in progressive "limit State's rights" circles, but nonetheless the truth of the matter. That's also 70% of the people of a State actually are contacting law enforcement to deal with suspected safe houses now, since before this development if they called the local police they were told "we can't really do anything about that since Obama's administration has revoked our authority under federal law."

Thank God the Progressives aren't counting on Arizona and already gave up on the 70% of the people the federal government has made angry over their handling of the border in Arizona.

Gotta love that Progressive Elitism Competence they claim is beyond the rest of us. We're just so stupid, uneducated, and haven't been told often enough what they are doing to the point we just nod yes after tiring of the constant blather from the Progressives telling us what they would like us to hear of what they are doing, and why, hoping that we tire of paying attention to the truth, the facts, the law and reality. If I remember, wasn't it Hitler who would tell a lie over and over until everyone believed it? Maybe it's President Obama or his Financier-In-Chief, George Soros, who are actually related to Hitler, and not the governor of Arizona as so many of these criminal by being illegal aliens are suggesting here in Arizona.

Thank you for reading this spontaneous fiasco of rant upon the reigning progressive advocatus diaboli in Washington, D.C.,

Toddy Littman

printer friendly create pdf of this news item

Another Progressive Slap In America’s Face Approaches

05 May : 07:34 Category: Immigration
I am amazed sometimes at what happens when preparing an article. Please take a look at the following photo that has been circulating on the web:


Keep this in mind as you read the rest of this article.

Remember TARP? Remember how it failed in the House after We The People contacted our representatives and said “We do not want this bill” at a ratio of 9:1 against it?

....And what you may not remember is the Washington Progressive Elites successfully tried again. The Senate picked up the failed bill, made it an amendment to a bill that already passed the House, and, due to the positives in the original bill, TARP was passed, despite our will and over our well articulated objection, which at the time was still at 8:1 against TARP.

Forward to the Healthcare Bill. Again we do voice our opinion, and again we are ignored, a parliamentary procedure is used, similar to the one Harry Reid pulled with TARP, that again also violates the U.S. Constitution, and, more importantly, ignores the Sovereignty of America as though below the will of Washington’s whim. Apparently, today America is only about achievement of the will of the United States Government and its Washington Elites.

Forward to Immigration. Arizona passes its own clone of the U.S. Government law to assure a means of enforcing immigration law in the State of Arizona. With 465,000 estimated illegal aliens in Arizona there is a specific necessity to have some deterrent to lessen the constant, and federally unanswered, influx of people who have no reservations in violating the border of the United States of America. And yet somehow Arizona is attacked by everyone who wants to believe that immigration is a province of the United States Government alone, irrespective of the apparent abdication of this presumed sole federal authority by the National Government’s failure to act.

It appears to me these people need to read about the history of their own country to discover the truth: There was no U.S. Citizenship prior to the 14th Amendment. I am sure, however, that the Progressives will continue to see this historical fact as meaningless, explaining away the actual history that people lived and continue to live in a state or the District of Columbia, and are citizens thereof which results in being a U.S. Citizen. Birth Certificates are managed by States, there is no federal Birth Certificate.

And of course, the need for Arizona to pass this law, say it with me, is that “We The People, the Sovereignty of the United States of America, have been ignored when asking for help securing our State borders.”

So get ready for the most demoralizing Progressive slap in the face to the American people so far, as Obama, and the rest of his Progressive Elites in Washington, D.C., [censored]-slap the American People one more time.

The other day Pelosi and Reid unveiled their outline, for “immigration reform legislation,” in response to protests by ILLEGAL ALIENS meaning: The United States Government, that ignored the American People and Sovereign of America issue after issue over and over, is now going to listen to, take orders from, and acknowledge the power of, illegal immigrants! Just watch as the dynamic duo of Pelosi and Reid, along with their new executive branch ally Obama, the Dictator-In-Chief, show respect to people who are not legally here, have no legal rights, no right to be heard, no right to even be considered, in what appears a perfect Saul Alinsky inspired Obama “bold step” to do one thing: maintain Progressive power. You see the Hispanic voting block is a perfect political offset, a perfect political gain to offset the Tea Party movement membership--Progressive interest in immigration reform has nothing to do with protecting our border, protecting our people and their property from encroachment by criminals, people who are criminals by merely crossing our border (hence, “illegal” alien). No, the progressive interest in immigration reform is merely a political ploy and nothing more.

Consider that to the Congress and Obama it doesn’t matter that these illegal aliens were violent or criminals in their own country in the first place, or that they are and/or were violent over the weekend here in the United States (ignored by the “mainstream media”), or that these illegal aliens are threatening others, or having the audacity to create and display billboards characterizing the Governor of Arizona as “Hitler’s Daughter,” while, as in the photo above, threatening to “shoot more police in Arizona until we get FREE!

But I should not blame the illegal aliens. The Second World War was almost 70 years ago, and I am sure the illegal aliens, who see this land as theirs and that it was illegally taken from Mexico, feel the entire purpose of Hitler is to be remembered and placed at the forefront of any mischaracterization, or similar misguided ad hominem attack.

This importance of Hitler to the Progressives appears glaringly true according to the history of the manifestations of Progressive propaganda, Hitler is their poster child and a projected definitive description of their opponents, never to be set aside.

Just look at recent history of the Progressives when they attacked President Bush. It’s obvious to this writer that in Progressive thinking every effort must be made to pay homage to Hitler. Forget any notion of making every effort to assure what happened in World War II never happens again. No no, what must be done is Progressives must mock the good of a Governor carrying out the Will of their citizens by claiming alignment of that Governor with the ultimate Progressive hero, Adolf Hitler in order to hide the Progressive socialist agenda in fact. Either that or it’s still a secret to Progressives that Hitler was the leader of the National Socialist Party whose ideology is big government communist control in character.

But as usual the truth that sets us free can and will be used by the notoriously power hungry, the Progressive socialist movement, to abuse and exploit those here illegally for the sake of the opportunity value of their vote. Correct me if I am wrong but this seems another trademark Rahm Emanuel “not letting the opportunity of a crisis go to waste,” even when that “crisis” is an entirely artificial Washington D.C. Progressive Elite creation that’s 15+ years old due to the national government’s failure to act. I grade the government as they grade us. Every time we fail to treat each other a certain way, it is characterized as abusing someone else, a trespass and abuse of our sovereign authority and prerogative. The criteria is by what we do or fail to do, as under the laws the government enacts “act includes omission,” thus by the government’s own criteria failure to act is acting, and the government is imposing a mandate upon the people by this very definition which strips us of our choice. But of course this doesn’t apply to illegal aliens who omitted applying for legal citizenship...Right!

Oddly our government, of, by, and for the people, which is prohibited from making this mistake, fails to see our lack of action as the statement of our assertion of our Sovereign prerogative. Instead the United States administrative body of Progressive Elites in Washington D.C. sees any “ommission” by U.S. Citizens as an opportunity to assume authority and control over everything that action touches to mandate this or that action, as though the government is trying to prove itself a government over us, over man, over the people, over we who created such government. In evidence I submit again the Healthcare Bill as our most recent example.

So now let’s compare and contrast the conservative Arizona Governor Brewer with Progressive Socialist Hero Adolf Hitler as that is apparently why Progressives always have their card ready to pull out, a sort of “SS membership card” demonstrating their obsession with racism, just like Hitler’s SS was obsessed, and with keeping race a political and social tool of manipulation, just like Hitler’s SS did.

Governor Brewer could not be farther from the ideology of Hitler. She believes in the limited exercise of government power over citizens of the United States in Arizona. Governor Brewer is an advocate of small government machinery to carry out the inherent powers of the authority of the State of Arizona. Governor Brewer is also paying attention to the State’s budget and, by passing the Arizona Immigration law, has proven to be a people-conscious governor who is well aware of what her citizens want.

Governor Brewer made no speeches to convince anyone Arizona’s immigration law is right, as we’ve seen done countless times by Obama in trying to get the American People to support anything. Instead the Arizona Governor is acting upon the input of the Federal Government’s ignoring of Arizona’s border problem because 70% of the legal citizens of the State of Arizona wanted her to sign the bill into law as a matter of public safety. I am sure the family of the Arizona peace officer shot in pursuit of a group of suspected drug traffickers, who used an assault rifle of common use by drug cartels, can be of great assistance in understanding the “matter of public safety” concerns of Arizona citizens.

So get your popcorn and watch as this wonderful group of arrogant illegal aliens, people who are here without any legal rights, from Mexico, Canada, the 50,000 Irish that are said to be in New York, etc., get access to use of the political means, to the opportunity to exploit the American Citizen by invitation and license of the Progressive infested United States Government. And make no mistake on this either, know that this is being done to make sure We The People in this nation are sent the Progressive message of their successful 2008 coup, telling us: “You are not in charge, we are, ‘we won,’ we are the Sovereign, you, the people, are merely here to pay for whatever we want to do, so accept and enjoy being exploited, abused, and treated as the peasants of old and eventually you too will know it is your destiny as Americans to be slaves to a ruling elite class since we so easily took your right, your will, your Sovereignty from you.”

Thank you for reading,

Toddy Littman

printer friendly create pdf of this news item